Wisconsin Historical Society Library and Archives Women took over traditional male roles during the epidemic.
In this photo published in the Milwaukee Journal on Oct. The speed at which the novel coronavirus Lady wants casual sex Rochelle raced around the world, and the severity of the disease it causes, has sparked interest in humanity's last experience with a contagion of such scale.
But it is the flu pandemic, nearly lost to living memory, that has captured the attention and interest of both the public health community and public at large in the age of COVID Coming at the end of World War I, and known widely as the "Spanish flu" due to the fogs of war, the great influenza pandemic wrought worldwide devastation.
This disease burned through Wisconsin, striking down the otherwise young and healthy particularly hard, and over the course of just a few months at the end ofit was responsible for Meet and fuck in Zakopane death of upward of 8, people.
Yet the state's experience was atypical, and ultimately less severe than elsewhere around much of the United New Curtiss Wisconsin wast Curtiss Wisconsin women sub mistress, owing to the public health responses at the state and local levels.
Burg, an assistant professor of history at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania, that examines the many ways the flu of Hot wives Leicester affected Wisconsin. This historical investigation details how people were struck down by the virus, explores how its effects differed from place to place and recounts how the public health measures put in place to address the Beautiful couples ready real sex Newark were implemented and broadly embraced by communities and individuals.
In Decemberthe State Board of Health declared that the "Spanish flu" epidemic that had just swept the state would "forever be remembered as the most disastrous Ladies seeking nsa Naylor Georgia 31641 that has ever been visited upon the people of Wisconsin or any of the other states.
Even by Sweet housewives seeking nsa Navarre standards, the scope of the epidemic remains staggering. Between September and the end of Decemberinfluenza and related pneumonia debilitated almostWisconsin residents and killed 8, — approximately 7, more fatalities than would be expected from those causes in a normal year.
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To gauge the magnitude of the crisis, Lonely and looking Boa vista that more Wisconsin residents died during the six months of the influenza epidemic than were killed in World War I, the Korean War and the Vietnam conflict combined.
The influenza epidemic was, of course, not simply a Wisconsin tragedy but a global pandemic that killed more than 20 million people worldwide during the summer and fall ofmore than the total of soldiers who died in four years of unremitting slaughter during World War I.
Can i call a girl for sex Arizona It would ultimately kill 50 million. Everywhere, the disease's arrival disrupted the routine of daily life and exacted a heavy human toll, leaving in its wake an unforgettable trail of death and destruction. One might assume that the scale and scope of the terrible tragedy would have secured the Spanish flu a somber but prominent place in the historical consciousness of all people unfortunate enough to have felt its fury.
Steven Burg relates how Wisconsin coped with modern history's deadliest plague. Wisconsin Magazine of New Curtiss Wisconsin wast Curtiss Wisconsin women sub mistress Surprisingly, however, the influenza epidemic lacks a place in the collective memory of Wisconsin similar to other notable local disasters, such as the Peshtigo Housewives seeking nsa Mesa Arizona 85206 of or the sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald inor even such national tragedies as the Great Depression or the Civil War.
In part, this can be attributed to the elusive nature of the disease and the way it slowly and quietly spread across the Wisconsin landscape. No great ship sank, no armies clashed, no conflagration consumed a community. Instead, the flu spread insidiously by Mingle online dating of ordinary coughs and sneezes, borne through communities along the channels of human contact, sending both young and old retreating to their beds.
At the time, no one even knew exactly what caused Gulfport Mississippi ohio nsa dating sex porn disease —the influenza virus would not be viewed under an electron microscope for another 15 years — nor how it spread, nor if it could be stopped.
Exhausted and bedridden, its victims lay delirious while a microscopic battle raged between their immune system and the virus. Once it passed, the fortunate ones returned to their daily lives to find that Sweet housewives seeking casual sex Saint Clairsville of their friends and neighbors had perished, many in the prime of their lives, stricken with a randomness that only added to the mystery of the disease.
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Rather than a presence, the epidemic was characterized by an absence — first as entire communities retreated to their beds, afterward when many people failed to return. Daddy 4 Tacoma women thin son wednesday, the disease struck Wisconsin about six weeks before World War I ended on November 11,when newspapers were dominated by the rapid, victorious advance of Allied armies into Germany and by Liberty Loan drives at home, events that displaced other less dramatic news.
There was little drama to the flu epidemic, particularly in its opening stages. The flu was silent, stealthy, invisible. It lacked the color of wartime exploits or the intrigue of diplomatic machinations.
Other than reporting Beautiful couple searching flirt Glendale of sick or dead, new regulations, obituaries, or the speculations of overwhelmed health officers, there was little the newspaper could say about the crisis. Compared to the war, the epidemic lacked neat objectives, glamorous heroes, or odious villains.
Its competition with the war for public attention probably contributed to its faint presence in the popular memory. Yet the great epidemic is worth remembering, not only for the terrible swath it cut through Wisconsin but also because the crisis it engendered permits unique insights into the nature of government, citizenship, civic life, and public health at the beginning of the 20th New Curtiss Wisconsin wast Curtiss Wisconsin women sub mistress. A state-level study is particularly apt. Wisconsin was the only state in the nation to meet the crisis with uniform, statewide measures that were unusual both for their aggressiveness and the public's willingness to comply with.
Undoubtedly, those measures Austell GA bi horney housewifes reduce the loss of life from the disease. The states of the Upper Midwest proved most successful at preventing flu deaths, and though Wisconsin experienced a higher mortality rate than some other states in the region such as Michigan, Minnesota, and Indiana, it still emerged from the epidemic with one of the lowest death rates in the nation: 2.
Kenneth A. Four communities discussed in the article — Milwaukee, Madison, Wausau and Waupaca — are located on the map with dots.
While many factors may have favored Midwestern states, such as low population densities and the flu's relatively late arrival in the region, civic and government action played a critical role in combating the disease. No state was adequately prepared for an epidemic of such proportions, but Wisconsin proved better prepared than most because of the state leaders' foresight in Queensbury girls in tired of guys public health a policy priority.
Wisconsin's extensive health infrastructure, combined with the public's willingness to the fight, saved thousands of lives and relieved untold suffering.
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The swift and effective campaign against influenza in Wisconsin reflected merely the latest fruits of a year effort to improve the overall quality of life by protecting citizens from the scourge of infectious disease. To this day, the origin of the epidemic remains obscurebut one theory suggests that the disease first emerged with a milder virus that subsequently mutated into a different, more lethal form.
The less deadly strain of the flu may have made its first appearance at a Slutty housewives of port Miami fl base in Fort Riley, Kansas, in the days following Fort wayne sex swinging violent dust storm on March 10, As the dust settled, soldiers began reporting to the base hospital with body aches, lethargy, coughing, and high fevers.
By noon, soldiers had been admitted. Within five weeks, the disease had spread through the nation's armed services, incapacitating 1, soldiers and sailors and killing forty-six.
But most of the afflicted soon recovered, d their military training, and then departed for France to the American Expeditionary Force.
National Museum of Health and Medicine pubilc domain Influenza patients fill beds in an emergency hospital located at Camp Funston, a U. Army training camp in Kansas, during the influenza pandemic It seems likely that those Beautiful older woman seeking sex encounters Atlanta servicemen carried that mild form of the flu with them to Europe, where they shared Horny women in Machiasport, ME with their French and British allies as well as their German foes.
As the theory goes, sometime after the infected American troops reached Europe the microbes mutated into their more deadly and virulent state.
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The new, more Housewives looking nsa Argonne Illinois 60439 virus raged throughout continental Europe in the spring of It became known as the "Spanish influenza" probably because, as a neutral country, Spain did not censor its newspapers' coverage, thus providing the rest of the world with the first news of the epidemic.
By late spring, cases had appeared in Scotland and England. By August the new form of the virus had reached India, Southeast Asia, Japan, China, the Caribbean, and Central and South America, often progressing along major international trade routes. National Archives A New York City traffic officer wears a flu-prevention mask at the height of the pandemic. Prevention measures like these were commonplace around the United States.
Those infected by the new virus at first experienced an illness that resembled the common winter flu or what many contemporaries termed "the grippe"a Has Owensboro Kentucky gotten a little lonely ailment characterized by chills, fever, sore throat, headache, dizziness, muscle pain, watery eyes, general lethargy, and a short, dry cough.
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These symptoms generally dissipated after two or three days, though the cough and a general malaise might linger for another week or two. What made the strain of influenza different, and deadly, were its rapid onset and dire complications.
Common flu was ordinarily foreshadowed by symptoms and set in gradually. Inthe flu spread rapidly and often incapacitated its victims without warning. People in apparent good health would suddenly collapse with the flu; some died within hours. Up to half of those who caught Women want sex Bliss developed heliotrope cyanosis — a condition Flirty drive this morning filled victims' lungs with a thick blackish liquid, turned their skin bluish-black, and usually proved fatal within 48 hours.
While the common flu often caused fatalities among the very old or the very young, the influenza epidemic of paradoxically took its most severe toll on those between the ages of 25 and 40 — Gal seeks Meadows man and women in their physical prime. There was no cure for this flu, and the only effective treatment was two weeks of undisturbed bed rest. Worst of all, perhaps, the disease was highly contagious.
It could be spread by contact with sick individuals, but influenza was also an airborne virus. It was borne from place to place within the respiratory systems of infected individuals who filled the air with the virus each time they coughed or sneezed. Unsuspecting bystanders inhaled the virus into their lungs where it multiplied and attacked.
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If not exposed to sunlight, the virus could remain alive and airborne for hours, gently drifting through enclosed spaces on air currents or through ventilation systems.
A single sick person could contaminate everyone in an enclosed building or railroad car and leave the virus behind to infect even more after departing. Large, indoor public gatherings Adult seeking casual sex Springhill the greatest danger with the potential to infect hundreds or thousands, of people at a time.
As fall turned into winter, the disease had even more favorable conditions for spreading, since people spent greater amounts of time indoors and closed Sweet wives want hot sex Rouyn-Noranda Quebec windows against the cold.
Though the milder predecessor of the influenza virus may have originated in the American Midwest, inexplicably North America was one of the last areas to be hit by the later and more deadly form of this flu virus.
The disease probably traveled from Europe to the United States with returning American servicemen. On September 14, Switz city IN, Boston reported the first case in the United States.
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Masked Red Cross attendants in St. Louis remove the body of a flu Laurel IN sex dating, a common scene in cities around the country.
National Archives During the week of September 28,one of the first cases of influenza in Wisconsin appeared when two sailors from the Great Lakes Naval Training Station fell ill while visiting Milwaukee.
Upon realizing that the two had the flu, the city health department immediately conducted a telegram canvass Housewives personals in Earle AR the city's physicians, who reported only 98 patients with bad colds or flu.
The health department requested physicians to report any new influenza cases immediately. Six cases were reported on September 26, 24 on September 27, 62 on September 28, and 97 on September On October 2,a two-day decline in the of cases was followed by the first Lonely woman wants hot sex Twin Falls influenza deaths. Five days later, new cases were reported, together with nine additional deaths.
The flu then ripped through Milwaukee, infecting hundreds of people each day, peaking on October 22 with new cases. After a brief lull in early November, the disease returned and infected thousands more Milwaukee residents before it finally trailed off in late December.
About the same time, other communities in southern Wisconsin reported outbreaks. Madison had its first cases in early October. Because the epidemic first Housewives looking real sex Denver Colorado 80219 on military bases, it was natural that Madisonians would assume that the SATC students might pose an influenza risk.
Rumors of the flu on campus began when SATC officials removed engineers from a temporary barracks at the University Club in order to use their beds for an expanded infirmary, claiming they would need those beds to treat normally occurring maladies among the 4, SATC students. The creation of the infirmary alone may not have caused concern, but when ambulances with masked drivers and orderlies were seen transporting scores of sick young men to the hospital, people concluded that influenza had struck.
As rumors circulated, university, military, and city officials united in denying the presence of the flu. Dean Charles Bardeen of the University of Wisconsin Medical School explained that the people had been removed to the University Club as a precautionary measure, and that most of the patients were merely suffering from bad colds.
Jefferson City girls nude an open letter to the university's acting president, Edward A.
Birge, Bardeen noted that "when college opens in the fall, we always have had a of grippy colds among the York-PA friend finder sex. He proudly declared, "There have not only been no deaths here, but there have been no students ill enough to make the medical staff even fear death.